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History of Jigawa State

Encyclopedia » History

Image: Map of Nigeria showing the position of Jigawa State



According to the 2006 census, the State has a total population of 4,348,649 million inhabitants. The population growth of the state is estimated at 3.5 % with about 48 % of the population falling under the age of fifteen. Out of the estimation about 2.9 million are considered to be productive adults. Eighty per cent (80%) of the population is found in the rural areas and is made up of mostly Hausa, Fulani and Manga (a Kanuri dialect). The pattern of human settlement is nucleated, with defined population centers.

Cross border migration between Jigawa State and neighboring states and between the State and Niger Republic is common. Migration of people into the state is highest during the dry season when cattle herders from neighboring Niger Republic migrate to the south in search of pasture and water for their animals. Outward migration is a feature of the off farming season known as “cirani” during which people leave the state in search of jobs in the neighboring states, particularly Kano and some major cities in the country.

State Population by NPC (2006)
1. Auyo 132001
2. Birniwa 142329
3. Babura 208101
4. Buji 97371
5. Birnin Kudu 313373
6. Dutse 246143
7. Gumel 107161
8. Gwaram 272582
9. Gwiwa 124517
10. Gagarawa 80394
11. Guri 115018
12. Garki 152233
13. Hadejia 105628
14. Jahun 229094
15. Kiri Kasamma 191523
16. Kafin Hausa 271058
17. Kazaure 161494
18. Kiyawa 172913
19. Kaugama 127956
20. Malam Madori 161413
21. Miga 128424
22. Maigatari179715
23. Roni 77819
24. Ringim 192024
25. Sule Tankarkar 130849
26. Taura 131757
27. Yankwashi 95759
 STATE TOTAL 4,348,649

The topography of the state is generally flat with the northern, central, and eastern parts covered with undulating sand dunes running in the Southwest to Northeast direction. The area around the state capital Dutse is very rocky with some low hills. The southern and western parts of the state around Birnin Kudu and Kazaure have the highest elevations with hills as high as 600 millimeters above sea level. The state is bisected by the Hadejia River which traverses the state from the west to the east through Hadejia-Nguru wetlands and empties into the Lake Chad.

The state lies between latitudes 11oN and 13oN and longitudes 8oE and 10o35'E with a tropical climate while the temperature varies at different times. High temperatures are normally recorded between the months of April and September. The daily minimum and maximum temperatures are 15 degrees and 35 degrees Celsius. The rainy season lasts from May to September with average rainfall of between 600 millimeters to 1000 millimeters. The southern part of the state has a higher rainfall percentage than the northern part.
The state is situated within the Sudan savannah vegetation zone, but there are traces of Guinea savannah in the southern part of the state. Its total forest covers about 5% due to rainfall characteristics and deforestation due primarily to use of wood for cooking. The name Jigawa is a Hausa word used to describe a vast loamy but non-marshy soil.

Administrative Structure
With a centrally controlled Government from the state capital Dutse, the state has twenty seven (27) Local Government Councils, three Senatorial Districts, eleven Federal Constituencies and thirty (30) state Assembly Constituencies as enshrined in the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

As presently constituted by the 1999 constitution, the Executive arm is headed by the state Governor, Alhaji Sule Lamido as the Chief Executive elected under the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) and is principally in charge of day to day running of its affairs with his Deputy Alhaji Ahmed Mahmoud and members of the State Executive Council assisting. The Legislature which is responsible for law making is headed by the Speaker Honorable Ahmed Adamu Atmos with other House leaders supporting him while the Judiciary charged with interpreting laws has the Chief Judge, Justice Mukhtar Adamu as its head and is equally the Chairman of the State Judicial Service Commission.

The Executive arm which is in charge of the day to day running of state affairs is organized into Ministries, Agencies and Parastatals. All the ministries have active programs that focus on education, economic and Agricultural development, land management, environmental protection and human related activities. Policy decisions are taken by the Executive Council and the responsibility of implementing such lies with commissioners through their respective Ministries and Agencies.

Since its creation the state had been administered by four military personnel and three civilian elected Governors.

  1. Colonel Olayinka Sule, Military Administrator - August 91 to December 91
  2. Alh. Ali Sa'ad B/Kudu, Civilian - January 92 to November 93
  3. Colonel Ibrahim Aliyu, Military Administrator - December 93 to August 96
  4. LT.Col. RA Shekoni, Military Administrator - August 96 to August 98
  5. LT.Col. ZA Maimalari, Military Administrator - August 98 to May 99
  6. Alh.(DR) Ibrahim S. Turaki, Civilian - May 99 to May 2007
  7. Alh. Sule Lamido, Civilian - May 2007 to Date

Local Governments
By the 1999 constitution the state has twenty seven Local Government Area Councils headed by elected chairmen and assisted by councilors elected on the platform of a political

History, People and Culture

The state was created on Tuesday August 27, 1991, when the Federal Military Government under General Ibrahim Babangida announced the creation of nine additional states in the country bringing the total number of states to thirty. The announcement was given a legal backing through the State Creation and Transitional Provisions Decree No. 37 of 1991.

Excised from Kano State, it covers a total land area of about 22,410sq Km.
It is bordered on the West by Kano State, on the East by Bauchi and Yobe States and on the North by Katsina States and the Republic of Niger.

The emir of DusteDurbar Gumel
The Emir of DusteDurbar Gumel

Ethnic Composition
The state is mainly populated by the Hausa, Fulani and the Mangawa. Also in the list are Badawa and Ngizimawa which are dialects of the kanuri language. They constitute significant percentages in Birniwa, Guri and Kiri kasamma local government areas. There are other settled tribes both from within and outside Nigeria inhibiting in almost all the local Government areas of the state with the highest concentration in the state capital.

Islam is the predominant religion of the people with over ninety nine  percent (99%) of the population being practicing Muslims.  Christian  religion has its followers with settled tribes forming the  larger  percentage of its practitioners.

The rich cultural heritage of the people is reflected in their mode of dressing, music, dance, craftsmanship and hospitality. Hausa culture and tradition have overshadowed others but the Fulani, Mangawa, Ngizimawa and Badawa still maintain their culture and tradition in their areas of concentration. These are mostly seen through their mode of dressing, food processing and pattern of settlement.

  • Festivals:
    As practicing Muslims the Eid-el-fitr and Ed-el-kabir (sallah)  celebrations are the main festivities of the people and these  cut  across ethnic barriers being a period of celebration for all  Muslims all over the world. The Ed-el-fitr is celebrated on the  1st of shawwal which is the nineth month in the islamic lunar calendar to mark the end of the Ramadan fast while Ed-el-kabir is marked on the 10th of Dhull Hajj, the 12th month of the Islamic lunar calendar.

    The 12th of Rabiul Awwal which is the 3rd month of the Islamic calendar is marked as a day for maulud celebrations to commemorate the birth of the Holy prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). The celebration is popularly tagged sallar Gani in Hadejia and Gumel Emirates due to the fanfare associated with it. Other festivals of the people include kokawa (Traditional wrestling) and Dambe (Traditional boxing) mostly performed at the end of the harvest season. The Sharo (Traditional flogging) is restricted to the Fulani community. Fishing festivals also take place in the state periodically as at when organized.

  • Arts & Crafts:
    This is one area that has continued to play a dominant role in  the socio-economic well being of the people by providing  gainful  employment and complimenting the economic life of  farming families. Some of the arts and crafts are weaving  (raffia  and cloth), pottery, smithing, tanning and leather works. Others are curving (calabash and  wood), traditional textile and architecture.


The tourism sector has remained largely unexplored despite its vast potentials to make substantial contribution to economic and social development. Natural tourists attractions and potential sites for the development of resorts abound in the State.
Baturiya Bird Sanctuary
Baturiya Bird Sanctuary which is located in Kiri Kasmma Local Government area and covers an area of 320 sq km with a buffer zone of a half kilo meter surrounding it which provides a natural habitat of 378 species of migratory birds from places as far as Europe and Australia. This site has been visited by Prince Philip and Prince Charles who are members of the Wildlife Conservation Foundation.

Wawan Rafi
Wawan Rafi situated in Kazaure is a site for holiday resort, golf course and other recreational facilities.

Range of Quasite Rocks
Range of Quasite Rocks located at Amaryawa in Roni Local Government area could be developed for mountaineering and as a picnic resort centre.

Ruined Unknown Town
Ruined unknown town in Gwaram Local Government Area, stone-wall and houses are still existing.

Location of the Emirs Palaces
Emirs Palaces located at Hadejia; Kazure, Gumel, Ringirn and Dutse. The structures are a combination of indigenous and modern architecture.

Captain Philips Tomb
Captain Philips tomb at Hadejia. He led the battle between the British soldiers and the people of Hadejia in 1906.

Sallah Festivals
Sallah Festivals is normally celebrated to mark the annual Eid-el-Fitr, Eid-el Kabir and Maulud. These festivals are marked by colorful parade of gaily-dressed horse riders, and camels, displaying various performances.

Fulani-Sharo an annual performance by the fulanis.

Market Days
Market days in places like Gujungu, Maigatari, Hadejia, Furji, Kazaure, Gada, Babura, Sara, Shuwarin etc. Each market has a particular day of gathering where thousands of people gather selling and buying commodities.

Rock Paintings
Rock paintings at Birnin Kudu is a site of interest.

Range of Granites
Range of granites rock at Kila, in Gwaram Local Government Area could be developed for tourism.

Shadai is a pool in Auyo town (Hadejia Emirate) whose "miraculous" waters had the power of curing disabled and handicapped persons. People used to drink and bath with the water in order to get cured from their diseases and deformities. Although the story of Shadai is of recent vintage, its origin is traceable to the pre-jihadic era. According to one source, Auyo at the time of the Habe Chief of Auyo, Jibrin, had a considerable number of muslim scholars (Ulama) who established their base in the town. One day the Ulama decided to vacate the town as a result of a serious disagreement between them and Sarki Jibrin. They packed all their belongings including their religious books, manuscripts and other items of value and sneaked out of the town at night. When the news of this development reached Sarki Jibrin, he immediately dispatched his bodyguards to pursue the fleeing Ulama and persuade them to return. However, in the event that they refused to return, the Chief further ordered that their books should be confiscated and brought to him. As it happened, the Ulama turned down Sarki Jibrin's request, whereupon all their valuable books were seized and brought to the Chief who had them placed in big pots and buried at the outskirts of Auyo town.

Several years after that incident, water was suddenly seen gushing out from the spot where those books were buried. It was soon realized that the water was no ordinary water as it had medicinal powers. As news about this "miraculous" water spread, people from different parts of Nigeria and even abroad trooped to the scene. Soon the place became over-crowded, and a camp was established beside the pool to accommodate more visitors. The appearance and efficacy of Shadai waters was confirmed by the Colonial administration when the Divisional Officer (D.O) of Hadejia in his 1935 annual report, stated that:

"people from many parts of Nigeria visited Shadai and most of them were cured people took bath and drank the water with prayers to meet their wishes. Blind men got their eyes opened, crazy people came to their senses, and women who had never given birth to children got children." The waters of shadai used to disappear and reappear in intervals of several years, with the latest reappearance said to be in 1963. Although the shadai pool is still in existence, the miraculous waters had not reappeared since then. Located in the North – East of Auyo town, about ¼ km from the district head residence. Shadai is now a site of historical importance. Its history has become inextricably linked to the history of Auyo in particular, and indeed to that of Hadejia Emrate in general. One district head of Auyo was in fact nicknamed “Mai Shadai”, a label fondly confirming the place of shadai in Auyo’s history.

Hadejia Town Walls and Gates:
Hadejia town walls and Gates was a large town with 5 town gates and excellent walls about 30ft (9. 14m) high, and 30ft (9. 14m) thick " (Captain Philips 1909) Hadejia Town walls had a long history dating back to the pre-jihad period. The walls were built to provide security to the people, and to serve as fortification against external invasion. Though mostly in ruins now, with a great proportion having completely disappeared, the walls were intact up to the time of the colonial invasion in 1906.

The construction of the walls was done by direct labour using local building materials. Over the years, the walls have been taken subjected to several phases of development. Expansions and reinforcements were made to accommodate a growing population or to enhance security against attack by powerful enemies. The walls were invariably complimented by gates whose history could be linked to that of the walls. The gates provided the only entry points into the town. They were made extremely strong, thus making it very difficult for an enemy force to break into the town through them. The gates were manned by gate-keepers or porters (sarakunan kofa) appointed by the Emir. These keepers used to close the gates everyday from dusk to dawn, thus controlling the movement of people in and out of the town during these periods. Visitors or strangers were not allowed in unless with the express permission of the Emir. It was reported that one Emir ordered the gates to be left open permanently, confident that no enemy force would dare attack the town.

The first town wall in Hadejia was believed to have been built during the pre-jihad period. Though the exact date of its construction cannot be determined due to lack of proper records, its perimeter is marked by certain well-known local pits: Mai kilabo in the west, Atafi in the south, and Dallah in the East. It was said to be one mile in circumference, and had four gates. The second wall was built by Sarki Sambo in the early years of the Jihad. It was wider than the previous wall, with its perimeter approximately put at 2 miles 170 yards. It had 5 gates. The present wall, which was the third, was also built during Sambo's reign. It was built at a time when Hadejia was at the centre of a bitter rivalry between Sokoto caliphate and Borno Empire. As such it was much stronger and wider than the previous walls.
Jigawa Kudai Boarding PS PE LessonJigawa State Institute for Information Technology
Jigawa Kudai Boarding PS PE LessonJigawa State Institute for Information Technology



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