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History Of Bauchi State

Encyclopedia » History

Image: Map of Nigeria showing the Position of Bauchi state
Bauchi State was created in February 1976. It is made up of 20 local government areas, namely: Alkaleri, Bauchi Boboro, Dambam, Giade, Ganjuwa, Darazo, Dass, Ningi, Shira, Gamawa, Itas Gadau, Kirfi, Warji, Jama' are, katagum, Missau, Toro, Zaki and Tafawa-Balewa.

Historical Development:

Bauchi State is one of the thirty-six political administrative states in Nigeria. It is one of the nineteen loosely referred to as the northern states and one of the eight often referred to as the far northern, dominantly Hausa/Fulani and Muslim states in the country

.It was, however, created as a state in 1976 when the then North-Eastern State was split into three different states, viz: Bauchi, Borno and Gongola. Bauchi State remained intact in its 1976 boundaries, surviving two subsequent state creation exercises of 1987 and 1991.

However, in October 1996, Gombe State was carved out of the then Bauchi State, with eight Local Government Areas (viz: Akko, Balanga, Billiri, Dukku, Gombe, Kaltungo, Nafada and YamaituDeba) forming the new Gombe State, and the remaining LGAs (i.e. Alkaleri, Bauchi, Darazo, Dass, Ganjuwa, Gamawa, Itas/Gadau, Jama'are, Katagun, Misau, Ningi, Shira, Tafawa Balewa, Toro and Zaki) forming the new Bauchi State.

According to history these heaps were gathered by th Kwadon Kayo to Prevent Invasion by the army of Emir Of Bauchi Malam Yakubu I, when He Launched war in the settlement.jBauchi main Prision.
According to history these heaps were gathered by th Kwadon Kayo to Prevent Invasion by the army of Emir Of Bauchi Malam Yakubu I, when He Launched war in the settlement.Bauchi main Prision.

Location and Size: The present Bauchi State's southern and northern limits are demarcated by latitudes 9°30' North and 12°30' North, respectively, its western and eastern limits are bounded by longitudes 8°45' East and 11°0' East, respectively. These mark the points of longest and widest stretches of the state. Within these co-ordinates, however, the state's total land area covers about 49,259 sq. km. This is about 4.9m ha out of Nigeria's 92.4m ha (Nig, FOS, 1987). The state now has an eight-like shape, with a blotted lower region, with about two-thirds of the land area being south of latitude 11°15'N.

The neighbouring states by location, clockwise, are Yobe, Gombe, Taraba, Plateau, Kaduna, Kano and Jigawa States. Thus, Bauchi State could potentially co-operate in mutual development programmes and projects with up to seven other states which share borders with her. Indeed, the state occupies a central location spatially among the north-east group of states in Nigeria.

Another locational advantage which Bauchi State has, is its proximity to Jos Plateau, which is less than 100km south of the state, by which it has access to a commercial airport and to a large market for its agricultural produce, particularly fruits and

Administrative Areas:

There are twenty local 1996. When Gombe State was carved out, the present Bauchi State was left with fifteen LGAs. Some of them were, in October 1996, further divided to make up the present twenty LGAs ( Table 5.1). The state comprises several previously inde. pendent powerful Emirates, including, for instance, Bauchi, Ningi, Katagum, Dass, Kanam and Duguri.The LGAs are themselves subdivided into districts which are made up of various village areas/groups.

Geology and Relief: Bauchi State lies generally at an altitude of about 600m above sea level, being part of the central Nigeria highlands and Jos Plateau complex. However, two broad relief zones can be identified, as follows:

a. A western high land area of hill ranges, including the northern edges of the Jos Plateau complex. This is part of the crystalline rock area in central northern Nigeria. The hill ranges are developed " on basement complex rocks, in an area which is also characterised by extensive '' plateau surfaces and volcanic extrusions. " The base of the hill ranges is generally at the 600m level, while peaks rise to 700.6m on the hills, and 729.3m on the Bunsil hills.

b. A central high plain (of the Hausa land) area, belonging to the Kerri Kerri and " Gombe sandstone and shale, of Tertiary Age. Isolated hills punctuate the high plain in several places, and reach heights '' of 798.5m on the Lamurde hill, and 816.4m on the Ligri hill. Indeed, most of the isolated hills in this zone are over 760m. Bauchi town lies within the undifferentiated basement complex with older granites (out-crops) and younger granite out-crops.


Bauchi culture festivalABubakar Tafawa balewa of Bauchi
Bauchi culture festivalAbubakar Tafawa balewa of Bauchi

Surface Drainage and Ground water Situation: The state is drained by several river systems. The dominant one is River Gongola which originates in the Jos Plateau area, southwest of Bauchi State. It traverses, in a southwest-north east direction through the southern LGAs of the state including Dass, T/Balewa, Bogoro, Bauchi and Kirfi and, thence, to Gombe State. It has numerous headwaters and tributaries within the state.

They include Rivers Surr, Lere, Maijuju, Rafin Bagel, Gangala and Gubi in the southwest part; Rivers Guji, Yuli, Ruhu, Dukut and Panana in the south and south-east parts. Through these tributaries and several other smaller streams and rivulets, the Gongola system provides considerable advantages for the state.

The western and northern parts of the state are drained by the Rivers Bunga and Jama'are systems. The Bunga, with its many tributaries, including Rivers Fanro, Magariya and Dan Warra, flows into the Jama'are system, and thence to constitute part of the River Yobe system. Within the northeastern part of the state is the River Dingaya (Dingaiye) system, with its tributaries such as River Kasi. The latter has rivers Farin Ruwa, Jimini and many others as its own tributaries also.

In the extreme northern part of the state is a considerable stretch of the River Katagum system. Thus, the state has considerable surface drainage systems that could be harnessed for development purposes. This is more so, in view of the fact that much of the state lies within very poor ground water provinces. For instance, within the basement complex crystalline rock areas, ground water is very unpredictable.

Only secondary aquifers occur in rock fractures, joints or weathering profiles. Water table is restricted to sub-basins in localised, isolated patches. Bore hole yields are often very variable. In the sandstone areas, ground water occurs mainly within depths of 0 183m, while boreholes have moderate yields of about 5,000 litres per hour (Lph). Groundwater from this formation is said to be generally suitable tor domestic and industrial uses. On the whole, the state would more profitably rely on impounded surface river reservoirs (dams) than on boreholes for groundwater.

Climate: Temperatures are, as would be expected, generally high in the state. Mean daily maximum temperatures range from 29.2°C in July and August to 37.6°C in March and April. The mean daily minimum ranges from about 11.7°C in December and January to about 24.7°C in April and May.

The sunshine hours range from about 5.1 hours in July to about 8.9 hours in November. Indeed, October to February usually record the longest sunshine hours in the state. Humidity ranges from about twelve per cent in February to about 68 per cent in August.

The rainy season months are May to September, when humidity ranges from about 37 per cent to 68 per cent. Monthly rainfall ranges from 0.0mm in December and January, though only traces of less than 0.1mm in February and November, to about 343mm in July. Onset of the rains is often in March while they end virtually by October.

Radiation is fairly even throughout the year, ranging from about 11.3mm in July to about 18.7mm in April. However, it is relatively highest in March, April and May, when it is generally between 16.1mm and 18.7mm. Similarly, evaporation in the state ranges from 2.4mm in July and August to about 15.7mm in March, the months of January April being the period of greatest evaporation. Bauchi State spans two distinct vegetation zones, namely, the Sudan Savannah in the southern parts and the Sahel Savannah in the northern parts. It is generally characterised by undifferentiated (mixed) woodlands, particularly mixed acacia.

The State has a balance of geographical features as well as climatic conditions. The entire western and northern parts of the state are generally mountainous and rocky. This is as a result of the closeness of the state to the Jos Plateau and Cameroon mountains. Two main rivers transverse the state, the Gongola and Hadejia rivers. The climatic condition of Bauchi State is very hot in the months of April and May, while December and January are the coldest months.
Bauchi state is a heterogeneous state, with predominant tribes like, Hausa, Fulani, Jarawa, Tangale, Waja, Balewa, Sayawa and Tarewa.
The state has a very rich history. The name Bauchi was derived from the name ofthe founder of the state, Baushe, who was a brave hunter during his time. Bauchi, according to early Hausa translators means, "no animal ever escaped the trap and arrow of a hunter".
Bauchi state is an agricultural state. Its vast fertile soil is an added advantage for agricultural products, which include maize, rice, millet, groundnut and guinea corn. Irrigation fanning is practiced and supported by the use of dams like Balanga dam, etc. Cattle and other livestock are also reared in the state.
Investors are encouraged by the government of the state to seek sufficient expanse of land for agricultural development. Agro-industries are also encouraged.
Bauchi state has abundant human and material resources and the potentials for economic development are so vast.
The state has industries like the Bazamri PVC - Wire Limited, Kuda Nails Factory, Yankari Natural Water Company, Zaki Flour Mills and Arewa Ceramic Industry.
There is a high level of social development in the state. Health services are adequately provided for, almost at the doorstep of the people.
There is a specialist hospital, a number of general hospitals, private clinics and primary health centres throughout the state.
Education is accorded pre-eminent status in the state. Both formal and non-formal institutions of education are well established, equipped and adequately funded by government. There are good training centres and colleges of education within the state.
Bauchi state is blessed with many tourist attractions. These include the Yankari Game reserve, Premier Game Reserve, Rock Paintings at Goji and Shira, the State Museum among others.
The Federal and' the State Governments have made sure that the state enjoys a good road network.
The State is well covered in its communication network. The government has a state owned newspaper, Radio Station, and a State Television Service.
Sports is also encouraged in the state. There is a sports complex. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Stadium in Bauchi. The stadium also has its own information centre with other modern facilities.
Bauchi State Museum BauchiBauchi Stadium.
Bauchi State Museum BauchiBauchi Stadium.
Bauchi Central MosqueAbubakar Tafawa Balewa Tomb
Bauchi Central MosqueAbubakar Tafawa Balewa Tomb
Yankari Game Reserve
Yankari has become the most developed wildlife park in Nigeria with a lot of attractions for visitors with a wide variety of flora fauna. The park is famous for its variety of animals available for viewing around the year, though the animals are better watched between November and May period of the dry season when the animals converge around the Gaji River in the park.
Wikki Warm Spring
The Wikki Warm Springs is one of the best features of the game reserves. It is crystal-clear, disease free and naturally warm. For many individuals, the Wikki Springs with white sand resting at the bottom, is the main reason for visiting the Yankari. Flood-lit at night, it’s wonderful after a hot day’s game-viewing to relax in the warm water. 
Iron Smelting
The shau shau iron smelting works has about 60 standing shaft furnaces, which are believed to be the largest historical industrial complex of its time in the West Africa Sub-region.
Marshall Caves
59 dwelling caves dug into sandstone escarpments, which were discovered by P.J. Marshall in 1980. There are rock paintings and engravings in zig-zag form and in straight lines.
Tunga Dutse
A rock with more elaborate engravings than the Marshall caves. Legible writings cover an area on the sandstone rock embankment of about 4m in length in Dwall River. The writings are legible. However, their age and meanings have not been determined.
Sumu Wildlife
Park in Ganjuwa Local Government. Other places of interest that abound in the state are the palaces in the six emirates.
Kalban Hill
A flat topped hill gives tourists a complete view of the park.
Kariyo Hill
Located near the Marshal caves is a beautiful picnic ground.
Paliyaram Hill
A popular camp for poachers, located 10 km from Wikki.
The Tonlong Gorge
A scenic gorge with associated hills, buttes and escarpments located in the west of the park.
Dukkey Wells
139 wells with interconnecting shafts representing an elaborate water storage system.

Other places of interest:
Panshanu Stone Heaps (Kwandon Kaya) in Toro Local Government,
Lame/Burra Game Reserve,
First Mining Beacon in Nigeria located at Tilden Fulani in Toro Local Government
Babban Gwani at Kafin Madaki in Ganjuwa Local Government
Shadawanka Rock Paintings located in Bauchi Local Government
Geji Rock Paintings located in Toro Local Government
Shira Rock Paintings (Dutsen Damisa) located in Shira Local Government
Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa’s Tomb Monument (Tomb of Nigeria’s first Prime Minister)


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Updated 7 Years ago

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