The Foursquare Gospel Church, Nigeria
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The Foursquare Church, officially named the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, is a Pentecostal denomination that resulted from the dynamic evangelistic ministry of Aimee Semple McPherson, who opened the historic Angelus Temple on Jan. 1, 1923.
Following the opening of Angelus Temple, our founder did not take time to rest on her laurels. The first “branch” church from Angelus Temple had its beginnings in Oct. 1923 in Long Beach, Calif. Other Los Angeles-area church plants rapidly ensued in Pasadena, Santa Monica, and Santa Ana; all four churches are still open today. As time passed, Foursquare branched out to the rest of the United States; we now have churches in most of the 50 states, including Hawaii and Alaska.
The launch into foreign ministry fields also began in the 1920s. In 1927 Sister McPherson commissioned Vincente and Teodora DeFante as missionaries to the Philippines. Foursquare is still alive and well in the Philippines, which has a very strong national church presence. A former missionary herself, our founder’s desire to go around the world with the Foursquare Gospel led to The Foursquare Church’s being known as a missionary movement. At this time we have approximately 100 missionary units deployed throughout the world. From our earliest days, foreign missions was a primary emphasis—and remains so today.
Another early Foursquare initiative was establishing an educational institution to train Foursquare ministers and missionaries. The Echo Park Evangelistic and Missionary Training Institute opened in 1923, not long after Angelus Temple opened. The institute’s name was changed in 1926 to L.I.F.E. (Lighthouse of International Foursquare Evangelism) Bible College. Today the school is known as Life Pacific College in San Dimas, Calif.; it is a WASC accredited college.
The term "Foursquare Gospel" came about during an intense revival in the city of Oakland, Calif., in July 1922. To a crowd of thousands, Aimee Semple McPherson explained Ezekiel's vision in the book of Ezekiel, chapter one. Ezekiel saw God revealed as a being with four different faces: a man, a lion, an ox and an eagle.
To Sister McPherson, those four faces were like the four phases of the gospel of Jesus Christ. In the face of the man, she saw Jesus our Savior. In the face of the lion, she saw Jesus the mighty Baptizer with the Holy Spirit and fire. In the face of the ox, she saw Jesus the Great Burden-Bearer, who took our infirmities and carried our sicknesses. In the face of the eagle, she saw Jesus the Coming King, who will return in power and victory for the church. It was a perfect, complete Gospel. It was a Gospel that faces squarely in every direction; it was the “Foursquare Gospel.” The four symbols perhaps most identified with Foursquare today are the cross, cup, dove and crown which stand for Jesus the Savior, Jesus the Healer, Jesus the Baptizer with the Holy Spirit, and Jesus the Soon-Coming King, respectively.
An Evangelist Is Born
From the beginning of Sister’s McPherson’s ministry in Los Angeles, she made headlines. She had traveled from the East Coast to Los Angeles in 1918—along with her mother, two young children and a secretary—at a time when women could not even vote. By the time the Nineteenth Amendment (which gave women the right to vote) passed in August 1920, she was gaining world renown as an evangelist.
Her penchant for doing the unexpected and unprecedented never ebbed. During the Great Depression in the 1930s, Sister McPherson oversaw a commissary ministry from Angelus Temple that fed more people in Los Angeles than government programs were able to care for. During World War II she sold more war bonds than the most famous Hollywood stars. Local Foursquare churches today follow in her footsteps to be sensitive to social issues and to the needs of disenfranchised people.
Having devoted her life to making the most of every opportunity to spread the gospel, Aimee Semple McPherson met an untimely end. She died in 1944 at the age of 54, and the leadership of The Foursquare Church passed to her only son, Rolf Kennedy McPherson. He served as the president and chairman of the board of directors for 44 years, retiring in 1988. At that time the denomination comprised more than 1,300 churches.
Passing the Mantle
Following Dr. Rolf McPherson’s retirement, John R. Holland became the third president of The Foursquare Church, serving until 1997. The fourth president, Paul Risser, served from 1998-2004; Jack Hayford served from 2004-2009. Glenn Burris Jr., was elected president by the convention voting body in June 2010, and is now serving as president. Each successive president has intentionally preserved the evangelistic and missionary emphasis that characterized Foursquare’s founder from the very beginning of her ministry.
Currently The Foursquare Church has more than 1,700 U.S. churches; globally, The Foursquare Church has more than 66,000 churches and meeting places in 140 countries and territories. That is a significant impact in the less than 90 years since Angelus Temple opened in January 1923
THE HISTORY OF THE NIGERIA CHURCH
The work/Organization now spread across 2064 branches in Nigeria was the result of a Foursquare missionary family in the persons of Rev. H.J. Curtis & Mrs. Faye Curtis and their two sons.
This family arrived the shores of Nigeria on November 4, 1954 from the United States of America with a clear goal of starting the Foursquare Gospel Church in Nigeria. From all available records it took about one year before an official stamp was given to the individual work of this Godly couple. The work effectively started in 1955. The records showed that Rev. H.J. Curtis, on arrival to Nigeria rented a flat at King George Avenue (now Herbert Macaulay Street) from where he started a Vocational Bible School in his apartment frontage from where the movement’s first pioneering students and eventual national leaders were discovered and trained. These were; Rev. James. A. Boyejo, Rev. Friday C. Osuwa, Rev. Samuel O. Odunaike and a few others.
At this Vocational Bible School, God also granted the Curtises the privilege of working with another independent foreign missionary sister by name Margaret Season who also graduated from the LIFE Bible College in Los Angeles in 1948 to assist in lecturing the students.
All the pioneering students and close associates who were undergoing training at the vocational Bible School were not actually converted freshly by the Curtises as they were believers who have given their lives to Christ in their various denominations. Rev. F.C. Osuwa was in fact already an ordained minister of God with the Assemblies of God Mission. The street meeting was actually one of the street meetings held by Rev. Harold Curtis in several places in Yaba. It was at one of these meetings that Bro. Boyejo first met Rev. Curtis in December, 1954.
First Place Of Worship: As a result of several street meetings that brought about a great crowd, Rev. Curtis rented a building which was formerly used as a beer parlour. It was during the semester break when after the discovery, rental and renovation of 68, King George Avenue, then known as the Yankee Bar, the inauguration exercise took place on Saturday, October 31, 1955. The occasion was colorful. The frontage of the building was lit brightly with several fluorescent lights and with chairs set up in the open air.
The following people actively took part in the never – to be forgotten historical event:
1. Rev. Harold J. Curtis
2. Mrs. Faye Curtis
3. Rev. Margaret Season
4. Bro. Odunaike S.O.
5. Bro. Boyejo J.A.
6. Rev. F.C Osuwa
7. Ronald Curtis
8. Gerald Curtis
9. Other Bible School students
The Open Air Inauguration Service started at about 7.00pm with an announcement and invitation to passersby. This was followed by Gospel Music from the trumpet played by Ronald Curtis and the accordion played by Bro. Odunaike. Gospel songs followed. The sermon was preached by Rev. Harold Curtis and interpreted by Bro. Boyejo. At the end of the message, altar call was made and many souls gave their hearts to Christ. The meeting closed with an invitation to everyone, to attend the first Sunday school and church service at the same venue the following day, which was Sunday.
Foursquare we stand for the living word
For the word of God
Telling to all the story of Jesus, stem of Jesse's rod
Man of sorrow and of grief, dying on the tree
Mighty Redeemer, glorious Saviour
Jesus of calvary
Preach the Foursquare Gospel
The Foursquare Gospel
Clear let the Foursquare message ring
(Let it ring)
Jesus only Saviour, Baptizer and Healer
Jesus the coming King
Unfurl your banners and forward go
Oh ye ransomed host
Trusting in Jesus Mighty Baptizer
With the Holy Ghost
Lion of Judah, King of kings, Lord of lords is He
Clothing HIs church with power to witness
Leading to victory
Catch up your shield oh ye living Church
Christ of Galilee
Bore all our sickness, carried our sorrows
Set the prisoners free
Lift the fallen, help the faith, dry the weeping eyes
Come bring your sickness
to thy physician, for He is passing by.
Lift your eyes, then unto the hills
Lift your voice and sing
The cloud of heavens aflame with glory
greet the coming king
Swift as wings of eagle's flight
shall He come again
Rev. Felix Meduoye
The church has a major presence in Nigeria. It entered Nigeria in 1955 through the ministry of Rev. & Mrs Harold Curtis who established the LIFE Theological Seminary at Herbert Macurley Road, Yaba, Lagos. The missionary couples trained a group of young boys and taught them the doctrines of Foursquare as contained in the 22 tenets of faith of the movement. Today, the church is the second largest in Nigeria. The church is currently headed by Rev. Felix Meduoye in Nigeria
We believe that the education of the church in Biblical principles comes first after salvation. We believe that God has provided His church with gift of teachers who are gifted and empowered by the Holy Spirit in building of the body of Christ. We also believe that the church leaders have genuine interest in the education of her people through formulation of policies that will enhance smooth operation of the directorate.
Our vision is to help believers discover their God-given abilities for ministry and to assist them in developing in such a practical and applicable way. We encourage deployment of these abilities rightly and properly in all areas of living on earth. We aspire to provide educational resources that will help develop personally strong, socially responsible and eternity sensible believers.
OUR MISSION STATEMENT
Our mission as the educational arm of the Foursquare Gospel Church in Nigeria is to create a unique Christian Education Department that is focused on providing adequate services to meet the church's educational needs with an absolute commitment to quality.
THE OBJECTIVES AND PHILOSOPHY OF FOURSQUARE CHRISTIAN EDUCATION
The objectives of the Foursquare Gospel Church Christian Education are outlined thus
1. Outreach - The christian education through the Sunday School will strive to enlist as many persons as possible in a systematic study of the Word of God. People must be reached before they can be taught. The Sunday school is used as an agent whIch continually reaches out into its community to gain new persons to fulfill this objective.
2. Education - Education involves not just teaching, but also learning and learning involves change. The Foursquare Gospel Church in Nigeria objective of christian education is to teach the entire Word of God and to indoctrinate persons in the fullness of the gospel as interpreted in the declaration of faith of the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.
3. Evangelism - Evangelism is the key purpose of the total church. The Foursquare Gospel Church christian education department is to lead a person into a personal experience of salvation through the Lord Jesus Christ,and that each believer be stimulated towards missionary vision and to support the Foursquare Gospel Church world-wide mission.
4. Ministry - The Foursquare Gospel Church Christian Education Department is to train believers to participate in the ministry of the church according to the gifts given to them by God; to encourage them to join the local church and actively serve the Lord Jesus through that body of believers.
5. Fellowship - The christian education department of the Foursquare Gospel Church in Nigeria is to provide opportunities for participation in true fellowship with other believers and Christ.
Finally, we as the educational arm of the Foursquare Gospel Church in Nigeria align ourselves with the statement of Kenneth O.Gfangel that , "... the overwhelming and all encompassing objectives of the church is total christian maturity for all its members. Total christian maturity includes an individual and collective life of biblical worship, biblical fellowship and biblical evangelism, all of which are stimulated by and produced through proper funding programmes of biblical church education.
The Foursquare Gospel Church philosophy of christian education is based on the biblical injunction in Deuteronomy 6:4 - 9, Ephesus 4:11-13, 2 Timothy 2:2,15;3:16-17 and the command of our Lord Jesus Christ for teaching in Mathew 28:19-20 since we believe that a teaching church is a growing church, hence, christian education is an integral part of the church because "it allows the church to do the Lord's work in the Lord's way and in the Lord's method."
Being the main trust of Christian education, teaching is a serious ministry which must be done with all commitment and transparent holiness. Based on these facts, we as a directorate of Christian Education of the Foursquare Gospel Church in Nigeria has a specific philosophy as follows:
1. It is God- centred - God is acknowledged in His attribute of self existing and real. The concept of God in all the ministries of Christian Education in the Foursquare Gospel Church begins, progresses and ends with Trinity. The Father is well acknowledged in His position of Fatherhood who sent His son to redeem the lost world and give His spirit to empower His son in accomplishing the purpose and plan of redemption.
2. It is Revelation-Centred: Truth is God's revelation revealed in the Bible. The Bible is the source of true knowledge without which a good christian character cannot be developed. Foursquare Gospel Church takes the Bible as the sole authority for God's revelation to mankind, It is on this fact the organization based its philosophy of educating mankind especially its worshipers and members.
3. It is Eternity-centred: Foursquare Gospel Church philosopy of Christian Education centred on programmes that soul for eternity. Programmes of ministries such as Youth, Sunday School, Children, Adult, Men, Women, Music and so forth set forth teachings that build individuals in such respective ministries unto maturity in Christ (Eph. :11-13) This is why the Foursquare Gospel Church does not just appoint leaders for these ministries but take time to pray and evaluate the qualities of leaders as relevant to the post or ministry.
4. It is Christ-centred: Christ is the center of the scripture and all things evolve from Him. This concept is seriously held by the Foursquare Gospel Church in formulating its philosophy for Christian education. With this background, Christ is projected in all the teaching materials of the Foursquare Gospel Church as the only saviour of mankind.
5. It is Bible Based Curriculum: The Curriculum of Foursquare is Bible based with the hope of approaching every human problem the Bible in order to have solution for them. The Bible is never substituted in any way with any other book. Systematic teaching of the Bible subjects is a priority which is reflected in the Foursquare Gospel Church curriculum.
6. It is Growth-centred: Growth of the individuals in the church is the concern of the Foursquare Gospel Church. Hence, its philosophy of Christian education in helping individuals to develop unto maturity in Christ. This is reflected in the Sunday school of the Foursquare Gospel Church organization in particular and other ministries in general. All the basic organs of christian education in the Foursquare Gospel Churches gear their programmes to affect every individual either sinners unto salvation or saints unto maturity.
The major focus of Christian Education Directorate of the Foursquare Gospel Church is on the Sunday School aspect of the Christian Education. The first Sunday school service was held on 1st November,1955 with about 150 students. The Sunday school has been waxing stronger. Today the attendance has grown from 150 - 132,484 students and workers. The Foursquare Gospel Church has provided opportunities for people to hear God's word in a suitable environment and confined places such as hospitals, remand homes, prison yards and settlement centers.
Sunday school teaching as an arm of Christian education is being held for one hour maximum on Sundays in every Foursquare Gospel churches. The time of holding it varies from church to church. It may be held preceding the worship service or in between worship where more than one service is being held.
In 1978, the organization of the Foursquare Gospel Church in Nigeria decided to discontinue with the use of the Sunday School manuals produced by the Assemblies of God in Ghana and began to use materials from its mother church in Los Angelos, California. In 1980-81, the General-Secretary of the organization, Rev. (Dr) E. Ola Adeogun started the development of Nigeria Foursquare Gospel Church Sunday School curriculum. He worked with some ministers among who was Rev. Rogo to achieve this objective. The adults (14 years and above) and (2-13) were the two categories of people the curriculum focused on. The materials were produced both in Yoruba and English languages.
Rev. (Dr) J.A. Boyejo, one of the leaders of the church in Nigeria was saddled with the responsibly of preparing other curricular to meet the needs of people both physically and spiritually. The need for better and broad classified curriculum arose for effective ministering to the people in 1987. This led to the re-organization of Christian Education directorate. The curriculum was reviewed and the revised curriculum covers the following areas.
1. Children Curriculum
The curriculum for children was classified into two groups with visual aids.
These two groups are the Kindergarten (2-5years), the primary and Junior (ages 6-11)
2 Adult Curriculum
The curriculum for this group is designed to serve those of 12 years upward.
There is Yoruba translation of manual used by this group as well.
3 Discipleship Curriculum
The discipleship curriculum covers the following areas of teachings.
i. New Comers or Visitors or Reception class
ii. Baptismal Class
iii. Soul-winning class
iv. New converts class
v. Membership class
vi. Workers-in-training class
NEW COMERS, VISITORS OR RECEPTION CLASS
The curriculum here is mainly focused on salvation message. The teaching materials reveal the lost state of man without Christ (Rom.3:23), the need of man's soul in order to meet the standard of God for reconciliation and present Jesus Christ as the only saviour of the World. This class runs for four weeks.
After spending four weeks in the newcomer's class, the student moves to the baptismal class. In this class, student is taught the necessities of water baptism by immersion which is one of the ordinances instituted by Christ Himself. Other lessons taught in this class are Stewardship of the believers which covers the use of the believers time and the importance of giving of offerings.This class runs for four weeks.
The commission for winning of souls otherwise called Evangelism is a command given to every believer.This class is run for four weeks in which soul winning techniques are taught and the students are challenged and encouraged to practicalized without which he or she may not be allowed to move to the next level.
NEW CONVERT CLASS
The new convert class needs specific teaching to established him in the Christian life. Special curriculum is written and available through Foursquare Gospel Church National Christian Education Directorate for establishing such a class.This curriculum is available on two levels; children with Youth and Adults.These manuals covers the basic items which new believers need to understand as they begin the Christian walk. The teachings cover: You and the Bible, Believers and the Holy Spirit,You and Money, the believer's stewardship promises to claim during problems, believers and prayers. The new converts are expected to spend nothing less than eight weeks in this class.
Getting to this class is not compulsory and neither is it automatic but believers are encouraged to become members of the Foursquare Gospel Church especially if such persons are interested in joining the workforce of the church. The teaching materials in this class are based on the twenty-two tenets of faith of the Foursquare Church, drawn out from the Bible by the founder for thirteen weeks after which the student is interviewed by the local pastor or designated leader. This is followed by public acceptance into membership on a Sunday morning service with hands of fellowship by the ministers and council members, while a membership card is issued to the students which is renewable yearly.
At the expiration of lessons in the membership class, the student is encouraged to be a worker in the church. Training of workers is worthy goal of the Foursquare Gospel Church education department. II Timothy 2:15 admonished workers to study to be "approved unto God...." This is inferred that each must apply himself to the task of being better equipped to carry out the assignment God has given him. If a student submits himself to training according to the above admonition, then he is able to "rightly divide the word of truth" both in explaining doctrinal issues and passing across God's message appropriately.
The curriculum here covers every areas of ministry based on Ephesians 4:11-16, Romans 12: 6-8, I Corinthians 12. It also deals with other area of ministry as needed by the challenges of today's world system. Curriculum is divided into two general sections which take about six weeks. Students are sent to their various areas of calling for details teachings are required by such service area. For example, if a student is called to teaching ministry, he/she has to move to teaching ministry class and expected to spend another six weeks (all totaling 12 weeks from specific to general areas of ministry) and the 13th week is for examinations and interviews.
After fulfilling above condition, the student is posted to the area of his/her calling for Christian work. From time to time, refresher courses, seminars, conferences are organized either locally, or on a larger body to make them current and relevant to their generation. In addition, there are other planned curriculum for specific needs of the church.
The Foursquare Church exists to glorify God and advance His kingdom. Jesus Christ's command is to preach the gospel and make disciples of all nations (Mark 16:15; Matthew 28:19). Therefore, we are "Dedicated unto the cause of Inter-denominational and Worldwide Evangelism."* These words express our spirit and our focus.
Our call is to preach Jesus Christ, God's Son, as The Savior, The Baptizer, The Healer and The Coming King.
Our assignment is to develop healthy, growing churches.
Our commitment is to plant national churches around the world led by loving servants of Jesus Christ. Churches developed in this manner will reproduce again and again.This makes possible the spread of the gospel to those who have not heard or accepted the message of God's Son.
Our Name - The Foursquare Gospel Church
"Foursquare" is a Biblical term used of the tabernacle in the Book of Exodus, of the Temple of the Lord in Ezekiel 40:47, and of Heaven, as described in the book of the Revelation. The term "Foursquare Gospel" was given in the inspiration of revival to the denomination's founder, Aimee Semple McPherson, during an evangelistic campaign in Oakland, Calif., in 1922. It represents that which is equally balanced on all sides, established and enduring. Such confidence in the power of the Gospel is also expressed by the verse, Hebrews 13:8, displayed in Foursquare churches proclaiming, "Jesus Christ the Same, Yesterday and Today and Forever."
The name represents the four-fold ministries of Jesus as:
"But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement for our peace was upon Him..." –Isaiah 53:5 (Titus 2:14, Isaiah 55:7, Hebrews 7:25, Isaiah 1:18)
THE BAPTIZER WITH THE HOLY GHOST
"For John truly baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit... Uou shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be witnesses to Me in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth." (Acts 1:5,8 John 14:16-17, Acts 2:4, Acts 8:17, Acts 10:44-46, 1 Corinthians 3:16)
"He Himself took our infirmities and bore our sicknesses..." –(Matthew 8:17, Mark 16:17-18, Matthew 9:5-6, Acts 4:29-30)
THE SOON COMING KING
"For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout... the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord." –1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 (Titus 2:12-13, Matthew 24:36-44, Hebrews 9:28, Luke 19:13, Luke 12:35-37.)
BIBLICAL TRUTHS. ITS WHAT THE FOURSQUARE CHURCH BELIEVES IN.
The Holy Scriptures – 2 Tim. 3:16-17
We believe that the Bible is inspired by God
The Eternal Godhead – I John 5:7
We believe that God is triune: Father, Son and Holy Spirit
The fall of Man – Romans 5:12
We believe that man was created in the image of God, but that by voluntary disobedience and transgression he fell from perfection
The Plan of Redemption – John 3:16
We believe that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us, saving those who believe on Him from condemnation
Salvation through Grace – Ephesians 2:8
We believe that the salvation of sinners is wholly through grace, that we have no righteousness of our own and must come to God pleading the merits and righteousness of Christ the Saviour
Repentance and Acceptance – I John 1:9
We believe that upon sincere repentance and a whole-hearted acceptance of Christ we are justified before God.
The New Birth - John 3:3
We believe that the change that takes place in the heart and life at conversion is a very real one.
Daily Christian Life – Hebrews 6:1
We believe that it is the will of God that we be sanctified daily, growing constantly stronger in the faith.
Water Baptism and the Lord’s Supper – Matthew 28:19, I Corinthians 11:28
We believe that water baptism by immersion is a blessed outward sign of an inward work. We believe in the commemoration and observation of the Lord’s Supper by the use of the broken bread, a type of Christ’s body which was broken for us, and by the juice of vine, which reminds of the shed blood of the Saviour
The Baptism of the Holy Spirit – Acts 2:4
We believe that the baptism of the Holy Spirit endues the believer with power from on high, and that His incoming is the same as in the Bible days
The Spirit-Filled Life – Galatians 5:15, 25
We believe that it is the will of God that we live and walk in the Spirit daily.
The Gifts and Fruits of the Spirit – I Corinthians 12:1-11, Galatians 5:22
We believe that the Holy Spirit may bestow upon the believer the gifts of wisdom, knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, prophesy, discernment, tongues and/or interpretation; and that the fruits of the Spirit (love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance) is evidence of a Spirit-filled life.
Moderation – Philippians 4:5
We believe that the moderation of the believer should be known of all men, that his experience and daily walk should never lead him into extremes of fanaticism.
Divine Healing – James 5:14-16
We believe that divine healing is the power of the Lord Jesus Christ to heal the sick in answer to the prayer of faith.
The Second Coming of Christ – I Thessalonians 4:16-17
We believe that the second coming of Christ is personal and imminent.
Church Relationship – Acts 16:5
We believe that having been born into the family and invisible body or church of the Lord, it is the duty of the believer, whenever this lies within his power, to identify himself with the visible church of Christ upon the earth; and that such visible church is a congregation of fellow believers.
Civil Government – Romans 13:1-5
We believe that the civil government is of divine appointment, for the interests and good order of human society; and that rulers should be upheld at all times except in things opposed to the will of God.
Judgment – 2 Corinthians 5:10
We believe that all shall be judged one day before God and receive either eternal life or death.
Heaven – I Corinthians 2:9
We believe that Heaven is the glorious habitation of the living God, and that His Son Jesus has gone ahead to prepare a place for those who believe in Him.
Hell – Revelation 20:10,15
We believe that Hell is a place of suffering and torment made for the devil and his angels, and where the unbelievers also go, until both are cast into the lake of fire.
Evangelism – James 5:20
We believe that bringing unbelievers to a saving knowledge of Christ should be the Church’s primary concern in this world.
Tithing and Offerings – Malachi 3:10, 2 Corinthians 9:7
We believe that tithing or the giving of ten percent of one’s income will be blessed and honoured by God, as will be offerings above and beyond that.